A Holiday House Party in Regency England

by Lauren Gilbert

A Holiday House Party in Regency England-For Ella Quinn’s party Dec 12

The holidays are a time when people want to gather with friends and family. When possible, people travel for the holidays, often spending a few days or more.  This is not a modern phenomenon.  House parties were popular during the Regency era as well, and one’s visitors generally stayed for a length of time, possibly as long as a month or even more.  For example, Jane Austen’s sister Cassandra travelled to Godmersham Park for Christmas at the home of their brother Edward Austen-Knight in 1798; she was there long enough to receive several letters from Jane.  The Marquis and Marchioness of Abercorn entertained a large party at their country home, The Priory, at Christmas in 1804.  The planning and logistics of that time were rather different from ours. 

The holidays themselves were more numerous.  The Christmas season started with St. Nicholas Day, celebrated on Dec. 6, when small gifts would be exchanged.  Next came St. Thomas’s Day, observed on Dec. 21, which was marked with charitable giving.

Christmas Eve was a day to gather greens and decorate the home, and guests would have been included in these activities.  These decorations included wreaths (the making of which included rosemary and laurel as well as greens) and a kissing bough (which probably would have included mistletoe).  Fruit such as oranges and apples could also be included (cost would have been a consideration for oranges, as citrus was quite expensive). Christmas Day celebrations would have included attendance at church services (weather and health permitting).  A special dinner would be planned and served.  Gifts would be exchanged.  There would be music, including Christmas carols.

Next up was Boxing Day, which was also St. Stephen’s Day, celebrated the day after Christmas.  On this day, gift boxes and the day off were extended to the servants, if any.   (Meals would be planned for cold collations)

New Year’s, of course, was celebrated, and could entail small gifts.  12th Night was celebrated on Jan. 6, marking the official end of Christmas season. A party with games, dancing, and possibly a masquerade was held when possible; a 12th night cake and hot spiced wine could be served.  The greens were pulled down and burned for good luck. 

As we can plainly see, a number of matters had to be carefully considered.  A spur-of-the-moment decision to dine out was not an option.  There was no television or electronic entertainment available.  Even with staff, a hostess had to consider a number of factors.  First and foremost were the numbers of guests.  There could be people coming and going throughout the entire month, some arriving as others leave, some staying throughout the month.  Juggling rooms, linens, and so forth would be serious business. 

The next issue would, of course, be food.  Food choices of the time would rely heavily on what was available seasonally, and often to regional tastes.  While the wealthy and upper middle class could indulge in imported or hot house comestibles, most food choices would have depended on what was available seasonally.  Elizabeth Raffald included a helpful list of every thing in season each month of the year in her THE EXPERIENCED ENGLISH HOUSEKEEPER. 

The Christmas Day dinner menu could include two or possibly three courses.  A first course could include a fish dish, such as turbot with shrimps and oysters, soup, sausages, and meat or fish pies.  Brawn, one of Jane Austen’s favourites, was also popular. The second course would often include roast beef, goose and/or pheasant, another soup such as a shell-fish bisque, and possibly some roast duck.  A dish of fruit, such as apples, pears and grapes, would also appear, with sweets such as a pear tart.  These courses would be supplemented with vegetables such as carrots, parsnips, celery, beets, spinach, and forced asparagus.  Various pickles were also popular.  A third course could include savouries, more sweets, dried and fresh fruits, and nuts including chestnuts, walnuts, and hazelnuts.

Favoured sweets at this time of year would include mince pies, steamed Christmas pudding and gingerbread.  Festive beverages would include syllabub, various wines, wassail (a concoction of beer, sherry, sugar, and spices) and ale.  Coffee, tea and hot chocolate were also popular.  After dinner, the gentlemen might have remained in the dining room, enjoying more wine and spirits, while the ladies (and gentlemen who chose) withdrew to drawing room for tea (or port or sherry or other wines). 

As so many of these holidays involved gift giving amongst the household or to the community, the hostess had to know who would be present at what time to be sure everyone was considered.  Gift giving was a delicate matter.  Unmarried men and women did not exchange gifts usually, unless courting, engaged, or related by blood.  Gifts were often created.  Handwork, including knitting, embroidery, and painting, was often employed.  Such objects could include embroidered slippers, handkerchiefs, and bookmarks, handmade lace, etc.  Quilled paper was also a popular craft, and cabinet makers sold objects such as boxes, wine bottle coasters, picture frames and more for young ladies to decorate with their paper filagree work.  A drawing or painting of a favourite view or animal would have been another option.  A handmade gift of this nature would have shown a degree of intimacy, so recipients must have been carefully weighed. 

If finances permitted, one could shop for Christmas gifts as well.  Items such as books, sheet music, fancy or decorative boxes, supplies for writing or arts and crafts would be unexceptionable for friends; perfume and fans, jewellery (particularly hair jewellery), and similar objects would have to be judged cautiously, as those could be considered more personal, and potentially improper.  Much care had to be given in selecting appropriate gifts for family as well as guests for the appropriate days, carefully weighing cost, relationships, and the potential for misunderstanding.

Entertainment was of great importance.  One would not want one’s guests to be bored.  Meals, and evening entertainments such as cards, dancing and so forth were obvious.  However, the hours in between also had to be considered.  If a musical instrument was available, it would need to be tuned and ready for use.  Sheet music would be desirable.  Singing was also popular.  Books and periodicals would help guests fill time.  Weather permitting, walks in the neighbourhood or on the grounds would have been enjoyed.  If the weather permitted, there could have been ice skating.  Depending on the size of the establishment and the means, all manner of activities could be possible.  Games were always possible, and it would be up to the hostess to have suggestions and any necessary pieces or costumes available.  Age would, of course, have been a consideration.  Plans would have to factor in gifts, entertainment, and menus for any children in the household during the holiday.

As we can see, the Regency era house party would have required serious logistical planning.  Even with staff, the hostess would be the arbiter of decisions regarding food and entertainment, and the delicate matter of appropriate gifts.  Making sure that guests were accommodated as people arrived and departed, or arrived and stayed for the duration, required detailed planning for laundry as well as space.  In houses with servants, Boxing Day brought other challenges, as servants had that day off.  Cold meals would have to be planned, as well as other matters considered.  Budgetary considerations for food, beverages, and gifts were also significant.  Even for a smaller household expecting only intimate family, expectations had to be managed and planning was crucial. 

Sources include:

LaFaye, Deirdre, ed. JANE AUSTEN’S LETTERS. Fourth Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013.

Raffald, Elizabeth.  THE EXPERIENCED ENGLISH HOUSEKEEPER. Lewes: Southover Press, 1997.

Smith, Eliza. THE COMPLEAT HOUSEWIFE. First ublished 1758.  Facsimile edition published London: Studio Editions Ltd., 1994

English Historical Fiction Authors blog. “A Regency Christmas Feast” by Maria Grace, posted Dec. 10, 2013.  https://englishhistoryauthors.blogspot.com/2013/12/a-regency-christmas-feast.html ; “Twelfth Night” by Lauren Gilbert, posted Dec. 10, 2011. https://englishhistoryauthors.blogspot.com/2011/12/twelfth-night.html

Random Bits of Fascination blog.  “Regency Holiday Gift Giving” posted Dec. 15, 2018 by Maria Grace. https://randombitsoffascination.com/2018/12/15/holiday-gift-giving/

The Regency Redingote blog.  “Quill-Work or Quilling?” by Kathryn Kane, posted April 17, 2015.  https://regencyredingote.wordpress.com/2015/04/17/quill-work-or-quilling/

Image-Holly Christmas card (not Regency era but evokes the spirit)- https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Holly_Christmas_card_from_NLI.jpg Public Domain; Still Life of a Roast Chicken , a Ham and Olives on Pewter Plates with a Bread Roll, an Orange, Wineglasses and a Rose on a Wooden Table by Osias Beert https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Still_Life_of_a_Roast_Chicken,_a_Ham_and_Olives_on_Pewter_Plates_with_a_Bread_Roll,_an_Orange,_Wineglasses_and_a_Rose_on_a_Wooden_Table.jpg Public Domain

British Newspaper Archive. Morning Post, Thurs. Nov. 29, 1804, p. 3, London, England; Oracle and the Daily Advertiser, Fri. Nov. 30, 1804, p. 3, London, England. https://www.britishnewspaperarchive.co.uk/

This post is part of the Regency Romance Fans Christmas Party on Sunday, Dec. 12, 2021 from 3:00 pm to 9:00 pm. I am giving an e-book of my latest novel, A RATIONAL ATTACHMENT, to a U. S. reader. Visit the Regency Romance Fans Facebook page to enter the giveaways and interact with authors, including me at 5:00! Here’s the link: https://www.facebook.com/groups/934474906612465

A novel of two friends from different backgrounds discovering themselves.
Will they find their happy-ever-afters?

10/12/2021 Updates from my writing cave

I’ve been reading old newspaper articles from the British Newspaper Archives set in 1813. I’m working on a non-fiction book about seven women who were powerhouses in Regency-era England, and have been looking for details about their various lives and activities. When writing anything set in Regency-era England, it is difficult to avoid the Season in London. Many of us read novels about the social activities of members of the highest level society, and try to imagine what it must have been like: glamorous, romantic, magical. The popularity of Jane Austen’s novels and their adaptations have fueled this interest. When I ran across several articles about balls and other social events, it gave me a different view of what holding a major ball actually entailed for the hosts.

On a winter night in early 1813, a ball was held in a mansion in Mayfair. The bare outlines of the events were these: approximately 500 guests starting arriving about 10:00 that evening, dancing commenced at 11:00, supper was held at 2:00 in the morning (Tuesday morning), after which dancing resumed until 5:00. The last guest departed at 6:00 in the morning. That is an 8-hour party. While one realizes that many of the guests probably came and went throughout the evening, one must presume that the host and hostess, at a minimum, were there all night long. This doesn’t take into account last minute activities earlier in the day: checking arrangements with staff, getting dressed, etc. Even with a full roster of servants at the ready, this must have been an incredibly long and exhausting event, as the host and hostess must have been constantly on the watch to be sure all went as it should: guests properly entertained and served, unexpected tensions smoothed, and indiscretions (or outright scandals) avoided. Somehow not quite the glamorous, care-free event one envisions…

Although the back-breaking labor of preparations and clean up was performed by servants, the host and hostess had the ultimate responsibility for the successful entertainment of their guests. No small endeavor, especially as social occasions of this nature were more than just fun. A ball of this nature advertised one’s status in the world not only for one’s self but one’s family in general. Its success (or otherwise) could affect reputations. Social events of this nature were also used for other matters, including discreet meetings of political colleagues, who were also frequently members of the same social set, and families considering judicious marital alliances to advance the respective families’ interests. Many issues and concerns simmered under the surface of what, at first glance, was an evening of entertainment. An event of this nature, then, became as much a serious business campaign as a social occasion.

The Next Dance by George Goodwin Kilburne (Wikimedia Commons-Public Domain) https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:George_Goodwin_Kilburne_The_Next_Dance.jpg

On a completely different note, don’t forget that Books at the Beach is coming up in Clearwater, Florida from October 21-October 24. Lots of authors will be there, and it promises to be a fantastic book festival. Unfortunately, I will not be there, but recommend it highly. Visit Eventbrite for ticket information here: https://www.eventbrite.com/e/books-at-the-beach-2021-tickets-131262115521?fbclid=IwAR2K_5BGTZLWCJDlHzZZMz1i3eVQnpOUpaMELX0NOMsfU4sRUjCqmUMzhjg

A Good Day

9/5/2021

The Orlando Reads Books Festival has come and gone. Useful information at the Industry Day Sessions, and the signing on Saturday was a success. Face masks and hand sanitizer were present, but nothing prevented readers from talking to authors and finding new reads. I really enjoyed it.

Tampa Indie Author Book Convention Coming Soon!


Coming soon! Mark your calendars as the Tampa Indie Authors Book Convention will be held on Saturday, June 5 at the Doubletree by Hilton Rocky Point Tampa! (Address: 3050 N. Rocky Point Dr. West, Tampa, Florida 33607-5800, USA) I will be there, and hope to see you! A very exciting event with lots of authors and their books. More information can be found on Facebook here: https://www.facebook.com/groups/TampaIndieAuthorBookConvention

An Amiable Wife

My post on Anne Law, Lady Ellenborough, is up for viewing on the English Historical Fiction Authors Blog.

As a female, I cannot help being interested in the lives of women of earlier times.  Finding information about some is easy, thanks to published letters and memoirs, newspaper archives, and (because of their own personal status or accomplishments or notoriety) even biographies.  With others, it is a challenge, and we may find ourselves finding that little data is available, and that as side details provided in the information related to a father, husband or other male relative.  One such lady is Anne Law, Lady Ellenborough.  The November/December issue of JANE AUSTEN’S WORLD magazine included a reference to her in “What Made The News in November & December 1812” that caught my attention. 

To read more about her, visit the blog at: https://englishhistoryauthors.blogspot.com/2020/12/an-amiable-wife.html#comment-form

Lady Sarah Frederica Caroline Child-Villiers: An English Princess

By Lauren Gilbert

477px-Schloss_EsterhC3A1zy_Eisenstadt_1587
Schloss Esterházy, Eisenstadt, Darstellung von Lady Sarah Frederica Caroline Child Villiers, by Karl Gruber January 2013 (Creative Commons Austria)

Today on the English Historical Fiction Authors blog, I have posted  about Princess Nicholas Esterhazy, born Lady Sarah Caroline Frederica Caroline Child-Villiers.

Lady Sarah Caroline Frederica Caroline Child-Villiers was born August 12, 1822 in London, and was baptized May 27, 1823 in St George’s Hanover Square Parish.  Her mother was Sarah Sophia Child-Villiers, Countess of Jersey and her father George Child-Villiers, 5th Earl of Jersey.  She was born into one of the wealthiest and most powerful families.

To read the rest of  the post, please visit the English Historical Fiction Authors blog.

Elizabeth Evans, Businesswoman and Philanthropist

Elizabeth Evans was the daughter of a wealthy, self-made businessman.  She married a man who was the son of a businessman, who was successful himself in his family’s business, and, after his death, married his half-brother.  During her second marriage, as a partner in the bank and businesses, Elizabeth utilized talents to make her mark as a businesswoman and as a philanthropist.  During the Georgian era, women were theoretically subsumed into their husbands.  However, there were some women who managed to make their marks in the business world.  Elizabeth Evans was one of them.

To read more about Elizabeth Evans, please visit the ENGLISH HISTORICAL FICTION AUTHORS blog.

Interesting Finds: Louis Ude French Chef

In the course of doing research for a non-fiction book due next year with Pen and Sword Publishing, I ran across an interesting character: Louis Eustache Ude, French chef.

Louis Eustache Ude was born around 1769, the son of a chef who cooked at the court of Louis XVI in France.  Louis was briefly apprenticed there as as well, left to try other occupations, and then returned to cooking.  He cooked for Napoleon’s mother, Maria Letizia Buonaparte for 2 years.  Moving on to England (probably late 18th-early 19th century), he went to work for William and Maria Molyneux, 2nd Earl and Countess of Sefton, with whom he stayed for almost 20 years.  The Earl and his countess were known for lavish dinners and select parties. His cuisine must have been greatly appreciated, as the Earl paid Ude 300 guineas per year, and left Ude 100 guineas in his will. While in the earl’s employ, Ude published his first cookbook, THE FRENCH COOK, in 1813. It is said that Ude left the earl’s service when the earl’s eldest son put salt in a soup Ude had prepared.  The exact dates of service for the earl are not known.

After leaving the Earl’s service, Ude went to work for the Duke of York.  After the duke’s death in 1827, he went to work for Crockford’s, a gaming club in St. James’s Street, where he was paid 1200 pounds per year to start.  He was there until late 1838 or early 1839, when he left over a salary dispute.  He was replaced at Crockford’s by Charles Elme’ Francatelli (about whom more here  ), while he moved on to work at other clubs.  His cookbook, which he re-titled THE FRENCH COOK: A System of Fashionable, Practical, and Economical Cookery, Adapted to the Use of English Families, went into numerous editions. (It is interesting to note that Mrs. Beeton is rumored to have included Ude’s recipe for turtle soup in her own cookbook.)  Ude was living in London when he died April 10, 1846.

Sources include:

Cooksinfo.com “Louis Eustache Ude” by Randall Oulton, published December 31, 2005 and updated May 10, 2018.  (c) 2010.  HERE

GoogleBooks.com THE NATIONAL REVIEW Vol 25, March-August, 1895.  pp. 784-785. London: Edward Arnold. “The Literature of Cookery (18th and 19th Centuries)” by A. Kenney Herbert. HERE

Morningmail.org “Indigestion: Dinner with high drama” (no author or post date shown). HERE

Oldcookbooks.com “Ude, Louis Eustache. The French Cook” (no author or post date shown). HERE