I have a new post on the English Historical Fiction Authors blog! Here is a taste…
The Hon. Frances Anne Vane Tempest was born January 17, 1800, in St. James’s Square, London. Frances Anne was admired and respected for her successes as a political and a society hostess, her business acumen, and her position in society. She capably ran estates in England and Ireland, and was known for being strong minded. Her background certainly prepared her to think for herself, to trust her own judgment, and to stand her ground. Her parents were fascinating people in their own rights.
Her father was Sir Henry Vane-Tempest of Long Newton, County Durham, 2nd Bearonet. He was born with the last name of Vane, and added Tempest by royal patent, after he inherited his late maternal uncle John Tempest’s estates in County Durham and Wynyard in 1793. This inheritance made him very wealthy, as the estates included significant coal mines. His uncle’s will required that the name Tempest be adopted. He replaced his uncle as M.P. for the City of Durham 1794-1800 and for County Durham 1807-1813. Also a sportsman, he owned a successful racing stable, including a horse named Hambletonian. (Henry gambled, and won, 3000 pounds on this horse to win at Newmarket in March 1799.) Sir Henry had a bad reputation as womaniser, and was known for having a bad temper. Henry Vane-Tempest’s father died in 1794, and he inherited the title, becoming 2nd Baronet. He had one sibling, his sister Frances, who married Michael Angelo Taylor, M. P. for the City of Durham. Frances’s marriage to Mr. Taylor caused an estrangement, but brother and sister eventually reconciled. Sir Henry also had an illegitimate son, named John, born about 1792, who apparently remained in County Durham. In April 1799, he married Anne Catherine McDonnell, Countess of Antrim.
A Holiday House Party in Regency England-For Ella Quinn’s party Dec 12
The holidays are a time when people want to gather with friends and family. When possible, people travel for the holidays, often spending a few days or more. This is not a modern phenomenon. House parties were popular during the Regency era as well, and one’s visitors generally stayed for a length of time, possibly as long as a month or even more. For example, Jane Austen’s sister Cassandra travelled to Godmersham Park for Christmas at the home of their brother Edward Austen-Knight in 1798; she was there long enough to receive several letters from Jane. The Marquis and Marchioness of Abercorn entertained a large party at their country home, The Priory, at Christmas in 1804. The planning and logistics of that time were rather different from ours.
The holidays themselves were more numerous. The Christmas season started with St. Nicholas Day, celebrated on Dec. 6, when small gifts would be exchanged. Next came St. Thomas’s Day, observed on Dec. 21, which was marked with charitable giving.
Christmas Eve was a day to gather greens and decorate the home, and guests would have been included in these activities. These decorations included wreaths (the making of which included rosemary and laurel as well as greens) and a kissing bough (which probably would have included mistletoe). Fruit such as oranges and apples could also be included (cost would have been a consideration for oranges, as citrus was quite expensive). Christmas Day celebrations would have included attendance at church services (weather and health permitting). A special dinner would be planned and served. Gifts would be exchanged. There would be music, including Christmas carols.
Next up was Boxing Day, which was also St. Stephen’s Day, celebrated the day after Christmas. On this day, gift boxes and the day off were extended to the servants, if any. (Meals would be planned for cold collations)
New Year’s, of course, was celebrated, and could entail small gifts. 12th Night was celebrated on Jan. 6, marking the official end of Christmas season. A party with games, dancing, and possibly a masquerade was held when possible; a 12th night cake and hot spiced wine could be served. The greens were pulled down and burned for good luck.
As we can plainly see, a number of matters had to be carefully considered. A spur-of-the-moment decision to dine out was not an option. There was no television or electronic entertainment available. Even with staff, a hostess had to consider a number of factors. First and foremost were the numbers of guests. There could be people coming and going throughout the entire month, some arriving as others leave, some staying throughout the month. Juggling rooms, linens, and so forth would be serious business.
The next issue would, of course, be food. Food choices of the time would rely heavily on what was available seasonally, and often to regional tastes. While the wealthy and upper middle class could indulge in imported or hot house comestibles, most food choices would have depended on what was available seasonally. Elizabeth Raffald included a helpful list of every thing in season each month of the year in her THE EXPERIENCED ENGLISH HOUSEKEEPER.
The Christmas Day dinner menu could include two or possibly three courses. A first course could include a fish dish, such as turbot with shrimps and oysters, soup, sausages, and meat or fish pies. Brawn, one of Jane Austen’s favourites, was also popular. The second course would often include roast beef, goose and/or pheasant, another soup such as a shell-fish bisque, and possibly some roast duck. A dish of fruit, such as apples, pears and grapes, would also appear, with sweets such as a pear tart. These courses would be supplemented with vegetables such as carrots, parsnips, celery, beets, spinach, and forced asparagus. Various pickles were also popular. A third course could include savouries, more sweets, dried and fresh fruits, and nuts including chestnuts, walnuts, and hazelnuts.
Favoured sweets at this time of year would include mince pies, steamed Christmas pudding and gingerbread. Festive beverages would include syllabub, various wines, wassail (a concoction of beer, sherry, sugar, and spices) and ale. Coffee, tea and hot chocolate were also popular. After dinner, the gentlemen might have remained in the dining room, enjoying more wine and spirits, while the ladies (and gentlemen who chose) withdrew to drawing room for tea (or port or sherry or other wines).
As so many of these holidays involved gift giving amongst the household or to the community, the hostess had to know who would be present at what time to be sure everyone was considered. Gift giving was a delicate matter. Unmarried men and women did not exchange gifts usually, unless courting, engaged, or related by blood. Gifts were often created. Handwork, including knitting, embroidery, and painting, was often employed. Such objects could include embroidered slippers, handkerchiefs, and bookmarks, handmade lace, etc. Quilled paper was also a popular craft, and cabinet makers sold objects such as boxes, wine bottle coasters, picture frames and more for young ladies to decorate with their paper filagree work. A drawing or painting of a favourite view or animal would have been another option. A handmade gift of this nature would have shown a degree of intimacy, so recipients must have been carefully weighed.
If finances permitted, one could shop for Christmas gifts as well. Items such as books, sheet music, fancy or decorative boxes, supplies for writing or arts and crafts would be unexceptionable for friends; perfume and fans, jewellery (particularly hair jewellery), and similar objects would have to be judged cautiously, as those could be considered more personal, and potentially improper. Much care had to be given in selecting appropriate gifts for family as well as guests for the appropriate days, carefully weighing cost, relationships, and the potential for misunderstanding.
Entertainment was of great importance. One would not want one’s guests to be bored. Meals, and evening entertainments such as cards, dancing and so forth were obvious. However, the hours in between also had to be considered. If a musical instrument was available, it would need to be tuned and ready for use. Sheet music would be desirable. Singing was also popular. Books and periodicals would help guests fill time. Weather permitting, walks in the neighbourhood or on the grounds would have been enjoyed. If the weather permitted, there could have been ice skating. Depending on the size of the establishment and the means, all manner of activities could be possible. Games were always possible, and it would be up to the hostess to have suggestions and any necessary pieces or costumes available. Age would, of course, have been a consideration. Plans would have to factor in gifts, entertainment, and menus for any children in the household during the holiday.
As we can see, the Regency era house party would have required serious logistical planning. Even with staff, the hostess would be the arbiter of decisions regarding food and entertainment, and the delicate matter of appropriate gifts. Making sure that guests were accommodated as people arrived and departed, or arrived and stayed for the duration, required detailed planning for laundry as well as space. In houses with servants, Boxing Day brought other challenges, as servants had that day off. Cold meals would have to be planned, as well as other matters considered. Budgetary considerations for food, beverages, and gifts were also significant. Even for a smaller household expecting only intimate family, expectations had to be managed and planning was crucial.
LaFaye, Deirdre, ed. JANE AUSTEN’S LETTERS. Fourth Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013.
Raffald, Elizabeth. THE EXPERIENCED ENGLISH HOUSEKEEPER. Lewes: Southover Press, 1997.
Smith, Eliza. THE COMPLEAT HOUSEWIFE. First ublished 1758. Facsimile edition published London: Studio Editions Ltd., 1994
British Newspaper Archive. Morning Post, Thurs. Nov. 29, 1804, p. 3, London, England; Oracle and the Daily Advertiser, Fri. Nov. 30, 1804, p. 3, London, England. https://www.britishnewspaperarchive.co.uk/
This post is part of the Regency Romance Fans Christmas Party on Sunday, Dec. 12, 2021 from 3:00 pm to 9:00 pm. I am giving an e-book of my latest novel, A RATIONAL ATTACHMENT, to a U. S. reader. Visit the Regency Romance Fans Facebook page to enter the giveaways and interact with authors, including me at 5:00! Here’s the link: https://www.facebook.com/groups/934474906612465
I’ve been reading old newspaper articles from the British Newspaper Archives set in 1813. I’m working on a non-fiction book about seven women who were powerhouses in Regency-era England, and have been looking for details about their various lives and activities. When writing anything set in Regency-era England, it is difficult to avoid the Season in London. Many of us read novels about the social activities of members of the highest level society, and try to imagine what it must have been like: glamorous, romantic, magical. The popularity of Jane Austen’s novels and their adaptations have fueled this interest. When I ran across several articles about balls and other social events, it gave me a different view of what holding a major ball actually entailed for the hosts.
On a winter night in early 1813, a ball was held in a mansion in Mayfair. The bare outlines of the events were these: approximately 500 guests starting arriving about 10:00 that evening, dancing commenced at 11:00, supper was held at 2:00 in the morning (Tuesday morning), after which dancing resumed until 5:00. The last guest departed at 6:00 in the morning. That is an 8-hour party. While one realizes that many of the guests probably came and went throughout the evening, one must presume that the host and hostess, at a minimum, were there all night long. This doesn’t take into account last minute activities earlier in the day: checking arrangements with staff, getting dressed, etc. Even with a full roster of servants at the ready, this must have been an incredibly long and exhausting event, as the host and hostess must have been constantly on the watch to be sure all went as it should: guests properly entertained and served, unexpected tensions smoothed, and indiscretions (or outright scandals) avoided. Somehow not quite the glamorous, care-free event one envisions…
Although the back-breaking labor of preparations and clean up was performed by servants, the host and hostess had the ultimate responsibility for the successful entertainment of their guests. No small endeavor, especially as social occasions of this nature were more than just fun. A ball of this nature advertised one’s status in the world not only for one’s self but one’s family in general. Its success (or otherwise) could affect reputations. Social events of this nature were also used for other matters, including discreet meetings of political colleagues, who were also frequently members of the same social set, and families considering judicious marital alliances to advance the respective families’ interests. Many issues and concerns simmered under the surface of what, at first glance, was an evening of entertainment. An event of this nature, then, became as much a serious business campaign as a social occasion.
The Orlando Reads Books Festival has come and gone. Useful information at the Industry Day Sessions, and the signing on Saturday was a success. Face masks and hand sanitizer were present, but nothing prevented readers from talking to authors and finding new reads. I really enjoyed it.
My post on Anne Law, Lady Ellenborough, is up for viewing on the English Historical Fiction Authors Blog.
As a female, I cannot help being interested in the lives of women of earlier times. Finding information about some is easy, thanks to published letters and memoirs, newspaper archives, and (because of their own personal status or accomplishments or notoriety) even biographies. With others, it is a challenge, and we may find ourselves finding that little data is available, and that as side details provided in the information related to a father, husband or other male relative. One such lady is Anne Law, Lady Ellenborough. The November/December issue of JANE AUSTEN’S WORLD magazine included a reference to her in “What Made The News in November & December 1812” that caught my attention.
Today on the English Historical Fiction Authors blog, I have posted about Princess Nicholas Esterhazy, born Lady Sarah Caroline Frederica Caroline Child-Villiers.
Lady Sarah Caroline Frederica Caroline Child-Villiers was born August 12, 1822 in London, and was baptized May 27, 1823 in St George’s Hanover Square Parish. Her mother was Sarah Sophia Child-Villiers, Countess of Jersey and her father George Child-Villiers, 5th Earl of Jersey. She was born into one of the wealthiest and most powerful families.
Elizabeth Evans was the daughter of a wealthy, self-made businessman. She married a man who was the son of a businessman, who was successful himself in his family’s business, and, after his death, married his half-brother. During her second marriage, as a partner in the bank and businesses, Elizabeth utilized talents to make her mark as a businesswoman and as a philanthropist. During the Georgian era, women were theoretically subsumed into their husbands. However, there were some women who managed to make their marks in the business world. Elizabeth Evans was one of them.